With the increasing frequency and severity of disasters, as well as the social and economic consequences for all countries, the international community has made improving disaster management a top priority. The international community and country-level National Disaster Management (NDM) authorities have made improving their ways to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters a top priority as a result of the increasing social and economic devastation caused by disasters around the world. The 4th Industrial Revolution and technological advancements are critical tools for achieving this. Traditional NDM systems, on the other hand, face numerous challenges as they alter the fundamental operational, organizational, and social dynamics of disaster management. There is currently a scarcity of research that looks beyond technology to examine the impact of digital transformation on the full life cycle of disaster management on a national scale.

 

Organizations of all kinds have invested in and adopted technology for a long time, primarily to automate tasks and processes. The 4th Industrial Revolution, on the other hand, had an impact that went beyond the digitization of tasks or the digitalization of specific processes. A detailed examination of individual 4th Industrial Revolution technologies is beyond the scope of this research. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Nanotechnology, Internet of Things (IoT), Robotics and Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT) such as self-navigating drones, autonomous vehicles, home robotics, and information-collection and target-attack robotics; Blockchain with its transformation applications in traditional industries such as healthcare, construction, civilian and military airspace.

 

Regardless of the specific technologies, the new digital era promises a digital transformation that will unleash unprecedented routes to conducting business, offering products and services, managing organizational relationships, and maximizing value for beneficiaries for organizations of all types (commercial, public, government, and non-profit).

 

Whole industries have been redefined and restructured as a result of digital transformation and new digital technologies. The emergence of a new type of entity known as 'born-digital,' which is defined as "a generation of organizations whose operating models and capabilities are based on exploiting internet-era information and digital technologies as a core competency" and redefines value landscapes, is a clear illustration of this.

 

It is not enough to simply introduce technology to capitalize on the opportunities and requirements that digital transformation brings through its focus, goals, activities, tools, and challenges. Instead, it's critical to rethink or redefine some of the underlying strategic fundamentals, as well as make changes to key processes and lead a multi-directional organizational structure change. This necessitates the organization taking calculated steps toward embracing a strategic digital endeavor, reexamining the surrounding environments, studying beneficiary targets, instilling cultural change, and introducing or retraining required intellects. Digital transformation, in general, is a technology-driven ongoing adjustment and adaptation process for organizations, industries, and society, in which new digital assets such as ubiquitous and embedded connectivity and computing technologies will redefine value streams and distribution channels. The current study builds on this foundation in order to assist NDM systems in better understanding the implications of digital transformation and establishing their outlook for the rapidly changing future. As a starting point, consider the following review of recent literature on disaster management technology.

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